Thursday, 19 April 2018

The Organ of Coventry Cathedral, played by David M. Patrick


This superb retrospective of French (and Belgian) organ music opens with Alexandre Guilmant’s Grand Choeur in D. It is subtitled ‘alla Haendel’ and certainly bounces along. Bearing in mind that it was completed in the French town of Boulogne-sur-Mer it could be subtitled ‘Handel by the Seaside’, in a humorous nod to Percy Grainger. 

Louis Vierne’s ‘Carillon de Westminster’ needs no introduction. It is the sixth piece in the third of Vierne’s four-suite set 24 pieces de fantaisie, published in 1927. The Carillon must be one of the most popular pieces of the composer’s music, along with the ubiquitous Berceuse (which even I can play) and a few overworked ‘finales’… This is one of the great war-horses of the organist’s repertoire. Vierne’s other ‘Carillons’ are worth digging out, including that of ‘Longport’ and ‘Les cloches de Hinckley.’

The ‘Feux Follets’ was published in the second suite of the 24 pieces de fantaisie. This is an impressionistic little piece, difficult and quite wayward. The liner notes point out that it often seems to be about to ‘find’ a tune, only for this to vanish, like a Will o’ the Wisp. It is magically played here.

I have never taken to Camille Saint-Saëns Rhapsodie No. 3 for organ. From my first hearing of this work back in the early 1970s, l thought that it grinds along without getting anywhere: it seems to me to lack structure. Others will naturally disagree. The composer makes use of Breton folk tunes to point up the work’s programme which was derived from a pilgrimage to the Pardon de St-Anne-de-Palaud.  I concede that there is some imaginative organ writing in these pages, but somehow it just does not do it for me.

Theodore Dubois’s ‘Toccata’ is one of those big French Toccatas that never fails to please. The work is in ternary form with a quiet restrained middle section surrounded by a bustling ‘moto perpetuo’ where the focus of interest is in the swift passages for the manuals. It is the third piece from the composer’s Douze Pièces published in 1886. Despite the composer having a Cavaille-Coll organ at the back of his mind when he wrote this ‘Toccata’, it works perfectly well on Coventry Cathedral’s Harrison and Harrison instrument.

I was quite taken by Henri Mulet’s ‘Rosace’. I have never knowingly heard this piece before. As a child, Mulet had witnessed the building of Sacré Coeur in Paris from his home in Montmartre. In fact, his father was onetime choirmaster at that iconic church. In 1920, Mulet composed the Esquisses Byzantines which were a series of impressions depicting various aspects of the building. The present work, ‘Rosace’ is a ‘dreamlike response’ to the kaleidoscopic patterns of the gorgeous rose window, which represents the ‘Sacred Heart.’

Most organ music enthusiasts know the ‘big’ works by Maurice Duruflé: the Prelude and Fugue sur le nom d’Alain, op.7, the Suite for organ, op.5 and the Prelude, Adagio and Chorale Variations on ‘Veni Creator’, op.4. I guess fewer will know the present piece, ‘Chant Donné’ (1949). This began life as a harmony exercise published in 64 Leçons d'Harmonie, offertes en hommage à Jean Gallon.  Gallon had taught several illustrious musicians between 1919 and 1948, including Olivier Messiaen, Henri Dutilleux and Paul Tortelier. It is hard to know if Duruflé had the organ in mind when he wrote this piece. The holograph was written on two staves, but when published it was in four-part ‘open score’ printed in antique notation
It has subsequently been arranged and published for organ. This quiet piece is infused with Gregorian chant and modal harmonies: it is quite simply gorgeous.

Olivier Messiaen’s Le Banquet Celeste is a great introduction to his organ music. There is nothing here to frighten the timid! It is an early work, dating from 1925. The ‘programme’ is a mediation on Christ’s presence in the Eucharist. It is not necessary to bear theological concepts in mind whilst enjoying this deeply reflective music. The one feature that will grasp the listener is the timelessness of the music. Despite being only six minutes long, it seems to last forever: and we (at least some of us!) do want it to last for ever. This bending of time would become one of Messiaen’s most beguiling traits.

Joseph Jongen’s Sonata Eroica is his masterpiece. It would be easy to describe Jongen’s musical style as a compendium of late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century music ranging from Franz Liszt to Olivier Messiaen by way of Claude Debussy, Richard Strauss, Paul Dukas and Igor Stravinsky. However, this description does not do justice to this highly-developed score. This is a sonata in name only. It would be better to describe it as a set of variations based on what may be an Ardennes folk-tune, preceded by a powerful introduction and concluding with a fugato and carillon-like coda.
The Sonata was commissioned by Belgium Radio in 1930 for the opening recital of the new organ in the Palais des Beaux-Arts in Brussels: it is dedicated to Joseph Bonnet, onetime organist at St Eustache’s Church in Paris. I enjoyed this performance from end to end.

I have not heard Guy Weitz’s massive Symphony No.1 for organ before. Weitz was born in Belgium, studied with Alexandre Guilmant and Vincent d’Indy in Paris and arrived in England as a refugee at the outbreak of the Great War. He was appointed organist at the Jesuit Church in Farm Street, Mayfair, where he remained until 1967.  Musically, Weitz’s music has echoes Widor, Vierne and Dupre. His native composers did provide influence too: Cesar Franck, Paul de Maleingreau and to a lesser extent, Flor Peeters.  The liner notes explain that the Symphony No. 1 was composed in 1930 and takes it musical material from the plainsong chants associated with ‘Mary the Mother of God.’  The first movement, a massive song of praise, derived from the ‘Ave Maria.’ The middle movement takes its subject matter from the ‘Stabat Mater’, where Our Lady is kneeling at the foot of Jesus’ cross. This music is characterised by sadness, reflection and anguish. The finale is based on the plainsong hymn ‘Ave Maris Stella’, Hail Mary, Star of the Sea. It is really a classic ‘French’ style toccata that brings the Symphony to an impressive conclusion.  This work can be enjoyed without its Christian underpinnings: it is a great work that deserves to be in the repertoire of all concert organists.

The text of the booklet, written by Ian Wells is excellent, with detailed and readable notes about each work and their composers. The notes are in printed in English, French and German. There is the all-essential specification of the large four-manual Harrison and Harrison organ, with the briefest of historical notes. For the curious, it was installed in 1962 at the time of the consecration of the new Coventry Cathedral. Alas, there is no overall photograph of the organ, (there is a tiny picture of the present organist and some organ stops, which is not Coventry) and no biographical details of the organist. For this information, the listener needs to visit the Impulse Music webpage. At present, David Patrick is based in Exeter.
The sound quality of this CD is splendid. The organ sounds fantastic and the playing of all these works is exemplary.
This is a fine exploration of French and Belgian organ music that features old favourites and, for some of us, new discoveries. It is thoroughly enjoyable from end to end. 

Track Listings:
Alexandre GUILMANT (1837-1911) Grand Choeur in D (c.1886)
Louis VIERNE (1870-1937) Feux Follets, Carillon de Westminster from 24 pieces de fantaisie (1926-7)
Camille SAINT-SAËNS (1835-1921) Rhapsodie no.3 (1866)
Théodore DUBOIS (1837-1924) Toccata in G (1886)
Henri MULET (1878-1967) Rosace, from Esquisses Byzantines (1920)
Maurice DURUFLÉ (1902-1986) Chant Donné (1949)
Joseph JONGEN (1872-1953) Sonata Eroica, op.94 (c.1930)
Olivier MESSIAEN (1908-92) Le Banquet Céleste (1928)
Guy WEITZ (1883-1970) Symphony No.1 (1930)
David M Patrick (organ)
Rec. Coventry Cathedral 27 April, 2017; 1 May, 17 July 2015
GUILD GMCD 7801
With thanks to MusicWeb International where this review was first published. 

Monday, 16 April 2018

Richard Rodney Bennett: Celebration for orchestra (1991)


Celebration for orchestra is the opening track on the first instalment of Chandos’s new cycle of orchestral music by Richard Rodney Bennett. It is a splendidly vibrant, up-tempo piece, that has many nods to William Walton in its rhythmic and melodic interest.

The work was commissioned by the Maryland Symphony Orchestra in 1991 as a ‘celebration of its 10th Anniversary Season.’ It is dedicated to ‘the founders, subscribers, and musicians’ of that institution. The work’s premiere was given at Hagerstown, Maryland on 14 March 1992 with the Maryland Symphony Orchestra founding artistic director Barry Tuckwell conducting.

It is difficult to define the form of this short work. On the one hand it is like a little overture, on the other hand, Richard Bratby (CD liner notes) has described it as ‘a miniature concerto for orchestra, somewhere between a fanfare and a comedy overture in the bustling manner of Walton’s Johannesburg Festival Overture (1956).’ This is immediately apparent from the ‘brassy swagger, soaring melody, and an invigorating, distinctly American rhythmic kick in just over four exuberant and brilliantly scored minutes.’ In addition, the orchestration is a masterclass of variety, interest and exuberance.

The Gramophone (January 2018) reviewer Edward Seckerson notes that ‘First up, Bennett arrives disguised as William Walton …whose wiry string figures and angular syncopations raise the question: is this a tribute or an impersonation…’ Seckerson concludes that ‘either way, it is very knowing and virtuoso, and does exactly what it says in the title.’

Nick Barnard reviewing this CD considered that Richard Rodney Bennett was ‘at his most overtly brilliant in Celebration…This brief work contains all of the Bennett fingerprints of vigorous music with a distinctly jazz-derived harmonic and rhythmic slant. If one was being harsh you might say this is the least individual work presented here but that is just to demonstrate the range of Bennett’s style from abstractly serious, to impressionistic and programmatic. It also shows his particular brilliance at being able to write hugely enjoyable occasional music…it certainly sounds as though the performers here are having a ball!’ (MusicWeb International,1 March 2018) 

Richard Bratby in the CD liner notes, reminds the listener of an interview with the composer in 1988 when he was asked ‘what motivated him to write music.’ Bennett replied that ‘I want to bring some people something beautiful, which will stimulate their imaginations’ and added that ‘I want to give players something which is a joy to play’. In Celebration this aim is amply achieved.

Celebration can be found on Chandos CHSA 5202. Other works on this CD include the Symphony No.3, the Marimba Concerto, the Sinfonietta and Summer Music. John Wilson and the BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra give an enthusiastic and vibrant performance of this dynamic overture (and the other works in this CD).

Friday, 13 April 2018

Celebrating John Blackwood McEwen’s 150th Anniversary- Today!


John Blackwood McEwen is not one of the United Kingdom’s best-known composers. Even in his native Scotland he is too little appreciated. A good selection of his music has been recorded, and based on this, he is a composer to be reckoned with. His music can be romantic and sometimes impressionistic with references to Scottish musical tradition. He is never in thrall to ‘tartanry’ or ‘sentimentalism for its own sake.

Brief Biography of John Blackwood McEwen:
  • Born in the Scottish Border town of Hawick on 13 April 1868.
  • Graduated MA at Glasgow University in 1888 and studied music there until 1891.
  • Appointed choirmaster at St James Free Church, Glasgow followed by a similar position at Lanark Parish Church.
  • Entered the Royal Academy of Music in 1893.
  • Returned to Scotland in 1895 taking up the position of choirmaster at South Parish Church in Greenock,
  • Taught piano and composition at the Athenaeum School of Music in Glasgow (now The Royal Conservatoire of Scotland).
  • Recruited in 1898 by Sir Alexander Mackenzie to the post of Professor of Harmony and Composition at the RAM.
  • Founded (with others) the Society of British Composers in 1905 and later the Anglo-French Music Publishing Company.
  • Appointed as Principal of the Royal Academy of Music in 1924, succeeding Sir Alexander Mackenzie
  • Knighted in 1931.
  • Died at his home in 25 Abercorn Place, St John's Wood, London 14 June 1948.

Five Key Works:
These works are all available on CD or download. There are several other works that would appear to demand interest and possible professional recording.
  • Concerto for Viola and orchestra (1901)
  • Grey Galloway: A Ballad for orchestra (1906)
  • Solway Symphony (1911)
  • Prince Charlie: A Scottish Rhapsody for violin and piano (1920)
  • Where the Wild Thyme Blows for orchestra (1936)

Key Bibliography:
  • Janey Drysdale (probably) The Dunedin Magazine (Volume 3, No.3) in 1915
  • Henry George Farmer, A History of Music in Scotland (Hinrichsen, London 1947)
  • John Purser, Scotland’s Music: A History of the Traditional and Classical Music of Scotland from Early Times to the Present Day,  (Mainstream Publishing, Edinburgh, 1992)
  • Alasdair Mitchell, Edition of selected orchestral works of Sir John Blackwood McEwen (1868-1948), 2002.

If you can only listen to two CDs of McEwen’s music:
  • McEwen, John Blackwood, Three Border Ballads: Grey Galloway, The Demon Lover, Coronach, London Philharmonic Orchestra/Alasdair Mitchell, Chandos 9241, 1993.
  • McEwen, John Blackwood, A Solway Symphony, Hill o’ Heather, Where the Wild Thyme Blows, Moray Welsh (cello), London Philharmonic Orchestra/Alasdair Mitchell, Chandos 9345, 1995.

And finally, if you have only time to hear one work:
Where the Wild Thyme Blows for orchestra (1936)
This work is a subtle balance of impressionism and romanticism owing something to the bleakness of Gustav Holst’s Egdon Heath.  Despite the title being a quotation from William Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream which contrasts ‘A wood near Athens’ with the Forest of Arden in Warwickshire, McEwen’s work is an ideal evocation of the Scottish landscape. I do not know what part of the country lies behind this work, but I guess that I would plump for The Gegan rock in East Lothian.

Tuesday, 10 April 2018

A Garland for John McCabe


The John McCabe website in an overview of this new CD states: ‘The concert of pieces composed in memory of John McCabe and performed on 29th October 2016 as part of the Rawsthorne Day at the Royal Northern College of Music, was an entire success. Thanks to the efforts of recorder player [and Manchester music ‘impresario’!], John Turner, who took part in the performances, both at the McCabe celebration and also in the evening, 13 works were performed, all relating in some way to John. Some were written utilising letters of his name, some took off from his particular musical loves, while others referred to non-musical interests.’
To this, has been added another six numbers.

All the works are written for recorder, clarinet, viola and piano, or some combination thereof. The generational spread includes a wide range: from Gerard Schurmann’s (born 1924) Memento for solo piano through to William Marshall’s (born 1992) attractive Little Passacaglia for recorder and piano. This latter work is based on a 12-note series used by McCabe in his Bagatelles (1964). It is the most ‘advanced’ work on this disc.
A glance at the batting order (McCabe was a great cricket fan) will reveal a prodigious and diverse group of composers. I do not intend to comment on all nineteen tracks: I will mention six pieces that especially caught my eye (or ear).

Peter Dickinson’s ‘A Rag for McCabe’, for the complete ensemble, opens tentatively before dropping into a ‘classical’ 16-bar ragtime tune. It is a ‘light hearted celebration of McCabe’s personality and achievement.’
The late Malcolm Lipkin (died 2017) has contributed a thoughtful miniature, In Memoriam John McCabe, for clarinet, viola and piano. There is a tiny quotation from one of Haydn’s piano sonatas, reminding the listener that McCabe recorded what is for many, the definitive versions of Haydn’s Piano Sonatas.
 The funereal Exequy for solo viola by John Joubert, born in 1927 is one of the most moving pieces on this CD. The composer has allowed himself nearly six minutes, longer than most of these pieces, to develop a heartfelt tribute.

I loved Martin Ellerby’s Lake District-inspired piece for viola and piano, Nocturnes and Dawn (Patterdale). Perhaps I am biased, as this village at the foot of Ullswater is in my favourite part of the National Park.  Listeners who know McCabe’s music, will recognise that the title is a translation of ‘Notturni ed Alba’ which is one of his most successful and well-known pieces. Patterdale was one of McCabe’s favourite haunts. The piece also includes a musical cipher on the name McCabe – HCCABE - as well as another Haydn quotation.

Returning to the ‘senior’ composer on this CD: Gerard Schurmann’s Memento for solo piano is in a sub-minimalist style, illuminated by some delightful dissonances, achieved by juxtaposing major and minor chords. The piece conveys a deep ‘sense of loss and sadness.’
The final work on this CD alludes to John McCabe’s enjoyment of a ‘wee dram’ o’ the malt. ‘Edradour’ is the smallest traditional distillery in Scotland, and in many connoisseurs’ eyes, one of the best. Gary Carpenter’s eponymous piece for the full ensemble is delightful and comes without a hint of a Hielan’ tune or tartanry.

The performances by all the artists are convincing, competent and thoroughly engaged. I was impressed by the CD sound, which is clear and well-balanced.
The liner notes are excellent: after an introduction by the composer’s widow, Monica McCabe, each work is given a brief, but helpful, introduction by its composer. There are the usual biographies of the performers. The rear cover includes a good photograph of the composer towards the end of his life, and his portrait on the front cover.

Altogether, this is a charming ‘Garland’ for John McCabe. Do not expect all these works to be masterpieces: but they are all well-crafted and highly memorable. I am not sure what will happen to them next. I would like to think that performers will include them in their own recital programmes. It may be that their brief nature, their ephemerality and their instrumental requirement will prevent this from happening. This would be a pity, as there is much here to delight, enchant and call to mind one the most important and best of ‘modern’ composers. I believe John McCabe would have been delighted with this heartfelt tribute from his friends, fellow composers and former pupils.

Track Listing:
Peter DICKINSON (b.1934) A Rag for McCabe (recorder, clarinet, viola, piano)
John JOUBERT (b.1927) Exequy (viola)
Edward GREGSON (b.1945) John’s Farewell (recorder, piano)

Robert SAXTON (b.1953) A Little Prelude for John McCabe (recorder, clarinet, viola, piano)
Howard SKEMPTON (b.1947) Highland Song (recorder, clarinet, viola) 
Elis PEHKONEN (b.1942) Lament for the Turtle Dove (clarinet, piano)
Robin WALKER (b.1953) And will you walk beside me down the lane? (recorder, clarinet, viola, piano)
Malcolm LIPKIN (1932-2017) In Memoriam John McCabe (clarinet, viola, piano)
William MARSHALL (b.1992) Little Passacaglia (recorder, piano)
Martin ELLERBY (b.1957) Nocturnes and Dawn (Patterdale) (viola, piano)
Rob KEELEY (b.1960) Elegy for John McCabe (clarinet, piano)
James Francis BROWN (b.1969) Evening Changes (recorder, clarinet, viola)
Gerard SCHURMANN (b.1924) Memento (piano)
Anthony GILBERT (b.1934) The Flame has Ceased (recorder, viola, piano)
Christopher GUNNING (b.1944) Danse des Fourmis (recorder, clarinet, piano)
David MATTHEWS (b.1943) Chaconne (clarinet, viola, piano)
Raymond WARREN (b.1928) In Nomine (recorder, piano)
Emily HOWARD (b.1979) Outback (recorder, clarinet, viola, piano)
Gary CARPENTER (b.1951) Edradour (recorder, clarinet, viola, piano)
NB All pieces composed in 2016.
Linda Merrick (clarinet), John Turner (recorder), Alistair Vennart (viola), Peter Lawson (piano)
DIVINE ART dda25166 [79:35]
With thanks to MusicWeb International where this review was first published. 

Saturday, 7 April 2018

James Langley: The Coloured Counties


James Langley's The Coloured Counties takes its name from a quotation from a line in ‘Bredon Hill’ from A.E. Housman's A Shropshire Lad:
Here on a Sunday morning
My love and I would lie
And see the coloured counties
And hear the larks so high
About us in the sky. 
This work is in the English pastoral tradition meeting the criteria laid down by the musicologist Ted Perkins. This includes the use of folksong or modally inspired melody, impressionistic techniques that would be at home with Debussy or Ravel and finally a certain neo-classical colouring. All three elements are well and truly present in this work.

‘Bredon Hill’ is one of the most popular of Housman’s poems from the Shropshire Lad: it is certainly one of the most frequently set. The best known are Butterworth’s and Vaughan Williams setting in his great song cycle On Wenlock Edge. Orchestrally is has inspired composers too. Julius Harrison wrote a fine orchestral Rhapsody for violin called Bredon Hill. Like the present work it is a reflection on the view from Bredon Hill and some of the emotions that it engendered rather than the sentiment of the poem.

The work opens dreamily, before a lovely folk-song like tune given on woodwind. Yet this tune does not dominate the texture – it is kind of floated over the ‘impressionistic’ texture of the accompaniment. The first third or so of the work is dominated by the woodwind, however at about the halfway point a romantic tune emerges that is really the heart of the work. Although this work does not have the angst of the ‘Shropshire Lad’s’ emotion as he considers the death of his lover: there is a little disturbing of the calm. This soon passes and a short interchange of material by flute and oboe supported by the French horns leads to the last statement of the ‘folk-song’. There is a mini cadenza for flute before the summer haze returns. The work concludes quietly with strings and flute.
Ian Lace (MusicWeb International February 1999) considers that ‘the music is nicely, hazily, evocative and lightly romantic with some rather odd Celtic inflections.’ I accept that there may be a wee bit of the Celtic twilight here, however, for me the mood is quite definitely that of a summer’s day in Bredon Hill.

It is unfortunate that we have so very little information about the life and work of James Langley. True, there is the Langley Memorial Trust which is dedicated to preserving his memory by giving financial assistance “the most talented and deserving members of the Midland Youth Orchestra. This was founded after his death in 1994.
The briefest of biographies are given on that Trust’s web page: it notes “James Langley’s professional commitments were as a senior BBC music producer, brass band competition adjudicator, and Trinity College music examiner, but it is the remarkable unbroken period of 38 years that he freely devoted to the Midland Youth Orchestra (MYO) that the trust is set up to celebrate. From the orchestra’s formation in 1956 right up to the moment of his brief illness, James Langley was continuously at the service of the MYO, first as a horn player, then Associate Conductor, Conductor and, ultimately, its outstanding Music Director for so many years.’
Listen to James Langley’s The Coloured Counties on British Light Music Discoveries Volume 1 Resonance 205

Wednesday, 4 April 2018

Evensong from York Minster on Regent CD


This splendid new CD from the Choir of York Minster, directed by Robert Sharpe, proves that there is tremendous life in the old traditional forms of worship yet. The Book of Common Prayer (with a few exceptions) and traditional music here deliver a timeless performance of Evensong. The celebration is that of the Feast of the Dedication of a Church.  It speaks ‘not just of the blessing and hallowing of time, but also space and architecture.’

The proceedings open with an Improvisation, op.84 no.2 written by Francis Jackson, erstwhile organist at York Minster between 1946-1982. He celebrated his 100th birthday on 2 October 2017. This quiet restrained piece allows the congregation to assemble and prepare themselves.
For me, one of the most evocative moments in the service of Evensong is the ringing of the vestry bell to announce that the robed choir should assemble. This is followed by a short ‘aisle prayer’ sung by the precentor with choral responses. The choir then process to their stalls accompanied by a short organ improvisation.
The first formal part of the service is John Shepperd’s beautiful ‘Liber nos, salva nos’ (Set us free, save us).  It is written in six parts plus the plainsong ‘original’ appearing in the bass.
The Preces and Responses are by William Smith (1603-45), an English composer based in Durham. They are deservedly popular.

One of the great glories of the English Church are the Psalms. These were included in the Book of Common Prayer by Thomas Cranmer, and based on a translation by Miles Coverdale. Add to this the traditional Anglican method of chanting these Psalms and we have a perfect fusion of words and music. The entire Book of Psalms, all 150 of them, is required to be sung in order at Matins and Evensong over a period of a month. The present CD calls for Psalms 69 and 70 which are appointed for the thirteenth evening of the month. These have a few verses omitted, as proposed in the 1928 BCP Revision: they reflect a ‘sub Christian’ attitude to one’s enemies. The chants sung, are by Thomas Tertius Noble, Charles Leigh Naylor and George Surtees Talbot.

The two lessons, read by the Dean and the Chancellor respectively, are taken from the New Revised Standard Version of the bible, which claims to be politically correct in every detail and devoid of bothersome (!) thees, thous, hasts, wasts and dosts etc.

The Mag. and Nunc Dim. are the impressive St Paul’s Service by Herbert Howells. This well-known setting was composed in 1950. It is eminently suitable for a cathedral with a big acoustic and an impressive pipe organ. It is a masterpiece.
Howells is also represented with the anthem ‘O Pray for the peace of Jerusalem’ (Psalm 122) which is a quiet, reflective work that is especially appropriate for Evensong. It was one of Four Anthems composed when Howells was staying in Cheltenham in 1941. 

The Creed is spoken, and the Lord’s Prayer is a lovely setting by the sixteenth-century composer Robert Stone.  

Edward Bairstow was organist at York Minster between 1913 and 1946. It is appropriate that one of his most celebrated anthems is sung here. ‘Blessed City, heavenly Salem’ was composed around 1914 for a group of West Riding churches: it is based on the plainsong melody traditionally associated with the Latin hymn ‘Urbs beata Hierusalem’.

Typically, there is a single congregational hymn at Evensong. In this case it is the well-known ‘Ye that know the Lord is gracious’ set by Charles Hubert Hastings Parry with the tune ‘Rustington’. For this special festival, the third verse has an inspiring descant devised by Benjamin Morris. I am not sure that the congregation is joining in here.

It is interesting that the Minster chose to sing the ‘Te Deum Laudamus’ in this celebration of Evensong. It was often the practice to include this canticle on High Days and Holy Days, usually preceding the inspiring (for those who approve!) ‘Anglo Catholic’ office of Benediction. Vaughan Williams’ ‘Te Deum’ was composed in 1928 specifically for the enthronement of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Cosmo Gordon Lang. Before this appointment, Lang had been Archbishop of York for some 20 years. It is therefore a fitting choice for the conclusion of this service.

After a short prayer, the service concludes with the exuberant ‘Finale’ from Louis Vierne’s Organ Symphony No.3 composed in 1911. Although nominally written in F# minor, the concluding bars establish the major key, thus concluding on a hugely positive mood.

The detailed liner notes by John Lee give all the information required to enjoy and follow this uplifting service of Evensong from York Minster. The texts of the entire service, including the readings is included.

Three things make this CD a great investment for all lovers of Anglican Cathedral Music. Firstly, the outstanding singing by York Minster Choir, secondly the superb organ playing by Benjamin Morris. These are reflected in an excellent recording. But, most important of all is the opportunity to hear an entire performance of Evensong, including the intercessions, the congregational hymn and the bible readings. All this allows the listener to sink into the atmosphere and fully enjoy the full sweep of Thomas Cranmer’s (with a few tinkerings) glorious and unsurpassed achievement.

Track Listing:

Francis JACKSON (b.1917) Improvisation, op 84 no 2
Bell and Aisle Prayer/ Organ improvisation (Benjamin MORRIS)
Introit: Libera nos, salva nos John SHEPPARD (c.1515-59)
Preces: William SMITH (1603-45)
Psalms 69 and 70: Chants by Thomas Tertius NOBLE, (1867-1953) Charles Leigh NAYLOR (1869-1945)   George Surtees TALBOT (1875-1918)
First Lesson: Genesis 28: 11–18 The Very Reverend Vivienne Faull, Dean of York
Magnificat: St Paul’s Service Herbert HOWELLS (1892-1983)
Second Lesson: 1 Peter 2:1–10 The Reverend Canon Dr Christopher Collingwood, Chancellor
Nunc dimittis: St Paul’s Service Herbert HOWELLS
The Creed
Lesser Litany: (Responses) William SMITH, Lord’s Prayer: Robert STONE (1516-1613) Anthem: Edward Cuthbert BAIRSTOW (1874-1946) Blessed City, heavenly Salem
The Intercessions: The Reverend Canon Peter Moger, Precentor
Anthem: Herbert HOWELLS O pray for the peace of Jerusalem
The Grace
Hymn: Charles Hubert Hastings PARRY (1848-1918) Ye that know the Lord is gracious (Rustington)–v3 descant by Benjamin MORRIS
The Blessing
Te Deum: Ralph Vaughan WILLIAMS (1872-1958) Te Deum Laudamus in G [5:05]
Final Prayer
Organ Voluntary:  Louis VIERNE (1870-1937) Final: Symphonie 3 in F sharp minor, op 28
The Choir of York Minster/Robert Sharpe, Benjamin Morris (organ)
Rec. York Minster, 8-10 February 2017
REGENT REGCD 506 
With thanks to MusicWeb International where this review was first published. 

Sunday, 1 April 2018

Peter J Pirie’s Thoughts on British Classical Music during 1968.


It is always interesting to see what musical compositions were premiered in past years. Especially so when the music is ‘celebrating’ their Centenary or their Golden Jubilee. Equally fascinating is gaining an understanding of what critics said about these performances, the traction that the works gained and their subsequent fate.
Peter J Pirie (1916-97) was a British musicologist and critic prominent during the later years of the twentieth century. He wrote several books, contributed to many musical journals, including the Musical Times and Music and Musicians, as well as Grove’s Dictionary of Music. Perhaps his most significant work was The English Musical Renaissance: (Victor Gollancz Ltd., London 1979).  The book is presented chronologically, with information presented for each year between 1890 and 1978. There is an opening section, which places the ‘renaissance’ into its historical context. Chapters are divided into periods, such as ‘The Age of Elgar’, ‘Between the Wars’ and ‘Revolution and Revival.’

I turned to the year 1968. The first work mentioned is Richard Rodney Bennett’s Piano Concerto which was first given at the Birmingham Triennial Festival of that year. The soloist was Stephen Bishop Kovacevich and Hugo Rignold conducted the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra. In 1972 the same soloist made a recording with Sir Alexander Gibson conducting the London Symphony Orchestra. It was released on Philips 6500 301, and latterly on Lyrita SRCD 275 in 2007. It remains the only recording of this superb work.  
Pirie notes the balance between the serial structure of the concerto but also suggests a ‘latter-day Ravel.’ Ravel had used ‘blues’ in his well-known Piano Concerto No.1 in G major (1929-31): Bennett utilised a ‘faster jazz idiom’ in the final movement of his work.  Pirie belives that the ‘shallowness’ of the concerto is ‘saved by its neat structure and obvious seriousness of intent.’
Richard Rodney Bennett’s Piano Concerto has not really survived into the 21st century. The single recording surely points up its relevance to today’s listeners.  It is a work that I like, and often listen to. In fact, it was one of the earliest pieces of ‘modern music’ that I heard. This was a performance by Stephen Bishop Kovacevich at the City Hall Glasgow, with the Scottish National Orchestra under Sir Alexander Gibson during their 1973 season.

Pirie then considers Humphrey Searles’s opera Hamlet.  I have never heard this work, as I doubt comparatively few will have. It was first performed in Hamburg on 5 March 1968 and was produced in London the following year. Pirie writes: Searle’s opera, like Schoenberg’s Moses and Aron, is based on a single tone-row: this was derived from a setting of Hamlet’s most famous speech, ‘To be or not to be’.  Fortunately, there is a YouTube recording of the impressive Suite that the composer derived from his opera. The ‘uploader’ apologies for lack of information as to when, where and who performed this suite.

The year 1968 saw the death of émigré composer Franz Reizenstein, born in Nuremberg in 1911. Pirie simply notes that he was a pupil of Paul Hindemith and produced several works including a Cello Concerto (1948), a Suite de Ballet (1940) and a Piano Concerto (1941). He considers that Reizenstein’s style ‘was eclectic and without much personality.’ This is a view that I would want to challenge in 2018. I have always found his music fascinating, pushing the tonal boundaries without ever slipping into 12-tone methodologies. I do concede that his musical language could be termed ‘eclectic’ but we must recall that he was a master of pastiche, as his contributions to Gerard Hoffnung amply show. 

And that was the end of Peter J Pirie’s assessment of 1968. No mention of several works by Alan Rawsthorne, John McCabe, Alan Hoddinott, Peter Maxwell Davies and many others receiving their premieres . But that is the prerogative of critics – to be selective.



Thursday, 29 March 2018

Rutland Boughton ‘For Joyance’: The Complete Chamber Music for Oboe


The liner notes explain the background to this splendid new CD. The British composer Rutland Boughton had eight children – from several partners - some of whom became ‘established musicians.’  For the record Ruby (1904-52) and Estelle (1907-72) were singers, Jennifer (1928-2001) was also a singer, whilst Brian (b.1927) was a trumpeter.
The main protagonist for this present CD is ‘Joy’ Boughton who was born in 1913 to the composer’s second partner, Christina Walshe. She was to become a well-respected and highly-accomplished oboist of her generation. Joy studied with Leon Goossens at the Royal College of Music, before embarking on her career. Ill health prevented her from taking up a Professorship at the college.  After her early death in 1963, the Joy Boughton Memorial Prize Fund was established. This was supported by big names of the day, including Benjamin Britten, Janet Craxton and Evelyn Rothwell (Lady Barbirolli). As a matter of interest, Britten composed his remarkable Six Metamorphosis after Ovid, Op. 49 in 1951 for Joy Boughton: she played in Britten’s orchestra at Aldeburgh.
On the present CD, all the chamber works are dedicated to Boughton’s daughter except for the short Portrait for flute, oboe and piano, which was possibly written for Leon Goossens.
In addition to the works recorded here, there are two Oboe Concertos. The first, composed in 1936, was dedicated to Joy, with the second being written for Leon Goossens in 1943. The first of these concertos has been issued on Hyperion Helios CDH55019 (1999) with Sarah Francis as soloist. Listeners await a recording of the second concerto.

The earliest work on this CD is the ‘Portrait’ for flute, oboe and piano. The liner notes explain that little is known about this piece. It may well have been written for Leon Goossens: he had the score in his possession in 1961. The Portrait was completed in February 1925, at a time when Boughton was concentrating on his massive operatic projects. There is no record of its premiere. It is a wonderful piece that is full of sunshine and optimism. There are touches of impressionism here and there. The dialogues between the flute and the oboe are delightful. It is a work that ought to be in the repertoire of all wind ensembles that include this grouping of instruments.

I moved onto the next piece, in chronological order - the Oboe Quartet No.1, completed during April 1932. Once again, there is no record of its first performance, however, Joy did include it in several recitals and made a private recording. There are three movements: the opening ‘allegro vivace’ is in sonata form, this is followed by a vivacious ‘scherzo’ and the work concludes with a satisfying set of variations on an unidentified folk-theme. The Quartet has been described by the composer, as ‘small, sweet and Spring-like, with some of Spring’s sadness through it…’
I fell for this work when it was issued by Hyperion (CDA66936,1997) played by Sarah Francis and the Rasumovsky Quartet. I still love it now in this equally well-wrought version.

The Two Pieces for oboe and piano, (1937) ‘Somerset Pastorale’ and ‘The Passing of the Faerie’, were originally two discrete pieces. The first is based on a genuine folk-song, ‘Ye little birds that sing.’ This is a charming pastoral ramble, in the nicest sort of way. The second is a ‘joke’ or ‘parody’, with Boughton writing a ‘take’ on the onetime famous ‘Faery Song’ from his Celtic-inspired opera The Immortal Hour. However, any serious intent is blown away by a bouncy folk song. The opening music is briefly recapitulated in the final bars. An ideal recital piece for oboist with piano accompaniment.

The Three Songs without Words for oboe quartet were derived from musical sketches that Boughton had made for several works that ‘did not materialise’. The opening piece ‘Whence’ may have come from a lost score for Isolt which originally incidental music for a play was.
The vivacious second movement, ‘Faery Flout’ was based on music once destined for a setting of a poem by Mary Webb. The final piece, ‘Barcarolle’ is deeper waters. This explores ‘brooding shadows’, ‘whispering willows and summertime drowsiness.’

‘Greensleeves’ is a well-loved melody, probably best-known in Ralph Vaughan Williams’s Fantasia. The original folk tune is often believed to have been devised by Henry VIII, although some suggest a later date, and being imported from Italy. Boughton’s take, written during the Second World War, is much simpler than RVWs with no contrasting tune (Lovely Joan). On the other hand, he does reach a level of retrospection and intimacy that is denied to that better-known version.

The ‘latest’ work on this CD is the Oboe Quartet No.2 which was completed during the spring of 1945. It is unbelievable that the work had to wait until 2014 to receive ‘its first known performance.’ Even a superficial hearing of this work reveals a masterpiece. I guess that the underlying issue with this work was that it did not reflect modernism of either Britten or that of the emerging serialists, such as Lutyens and Searle.
The ‘dramatic’ opening ‘allegro’ is the most complex section of this four-movement quartet. There are certainly several folk songs hinted at, with several less-obviously derived tunes: it is just a continuous outpouring of melody.  The ‘andante languendo’ is based on the final number of the Three Songs without Words. It is certainly the heart of what is typically an exhilarating quartet. I enjoyed the ‘scherzo, which has an almost jazzy feel to it with folk inspired waltz tunes. It is lively, happy and joyful music, with only a little bit of sad regret in the ‘trio’ section. The finale is an exuberant ‘hornpipe’ which fairly romps along. It is certainly music to bring even the most reserved of chamber music habitués to their feet!

As always with the Oboe Classics label the booklet is a masterclass – with one exception. Detailed notes for each work are preceded by a short overview setting the music in its entirety in context. They are written by Ian R Boughton, the composer’s grandson.  There is long biography of the composer and notes about the performers. Finally. Mark Baigent has provided details about the instruments used in this recording, which reflect the contemporary (to Boughton) used. The exception to these notes are the fonts – grey printed on grey, white on black etc. It may be artistically pleasing, but it does not help older eyes gain the benefit of the information so helpfully provided.

I enjoyed every bar of this beautifully recorded and played exploration of Rutland Boughton’s contribution to chamber music featuring the oboe. Let us hope this CD kick starts further investigation into the composer’s considerable catalogue of music. Certainly every piece on this disc ought to be in oboists’ repertoire. 

Track Listing:
Rutland BOUGHTON (1878-1960)
Oboe Quartet No.2 ‘For my daughter, Joy’ (1945)
Two Pieces for oboe and piano ‘For Joyance’ (1937)
Three Songs without Words for oboe quartet, ‘To Joyance, with love’ (1937)
Portrait for flute, oboe and piano (1925)
Greensleeves for oboe quartet, ‘For Joy’ (c.1939-45)
Oboe Quartet No.1, ‘For my daughter Joy’ (1932)
Mark Baigent (oboe), Eva Cabellero (flute), Michael Jones (piano), Sophie Barber (violin), Chian Lim (viola), Stephen Orton (cello)
Rec. Woodside Hall, Hitchin, 10-11 August 2017 
OBOE CLASSICS CC2034  

With thanks to MusicWeb International where this review was first published. 

Monday, 26 March 2018

Anthony Hedges: West Oxford Walks for string orchestra


It is strange how a delightful little suite like Anthony Hedges’s West Oxford Walks can get totally ignored in the musical press. I was unable to find a review of this work in The Gramophone magazine, Fanfare or the American Record Guide. Even MusicWeb International does not appear to have carried a formal review of the Dutton Epoch disc released in 2006. There is, however, a short appreciation of Hedges suite provide by Paul Conway in a larger study of the composer’s music, appearing in MusicWeb.

This delightful work began life as a string quartet (c.2001), commissioned by the West Oxford Community Association and first performed by the Cotswold Ensemble. It was later arranged for string orchestra and harp, which is the version presented on the CD. Paul Conway notes that Hedges also arranged this suite for flute and piano, and, ‘following requests’ the first movement was arranged for two cellos and piano and also bassoon and piano.

Appropriately, the three movements take several localities in West Oxford for their inspiration. The first, ‘Willow Walk’ has ‘a jazzy swing’ to it which suggests a quiet saunter on a Sunday afternoon. This lane meanders down from Osney to North Hinkesy by way of recreation grounds and a few fields.  Alas, it now ends at the busy A34 which is a main trunk road connecting Winchester to Manchester.
The heart of this suite if the second movement, ‘Osiers at Osney.’ This part of Oxford is rather built up these days. However, Osney village is on the banks of the Thames, and as such has a riverside footpath, a lock and nearby pubs. Hedges opens the movement with a dreamy pastoral theme, before changing the mood to something a little more ardent. However, the wistful music returns bringing this delightful tone poem to a close.
The finale is an energetic number, reminding the listener of ‘Tumbling Bay Walk’ which heads out to open fields past tennis courts and the West Oxford Bowls Club. It is vigorous music that suggests a brisk walk or even a jog rather than a lazy walk.  The listener will be impressed by Hedges’s craftsmanship from the first bar to the last. It is a little work that should be taken up by orchestras professional, college and amateur alike.

Anthony Hedges’s West Oxfordshire Walks was released on Dutton Epoch (CDLX 7170) in 2006. The Royal Ballet Sinfonia was conducted by Gavin Sutherland. Other music includes works by Ernest Tomlinson, Clifton Parker, Victor Hely-Hutchinson, Philip Lord, Carlo Martelli and James Langley.  

Thursday, 22 March 2018

Celebrating Hamish MacCunn’s 150th Anniversary


Hamish MacCunn (1868-1916) is best known for his overture The Land of the Mountain and the Flood, which is often heard in concert halls, Classic FM and on CD. This work regained popularity in the 1970s when it was used as the theme tune to the BBC television series Sutherland’s Law. Apart from this, his music remains virtually unknown at present.
Hamish MacCunn’s romantic-sounding music, which also includes songs, part-songs and piano pieces, owes much to Mendelssohn, Grieg, Dvorak and Wagner in its style. The earlier works are marked by a considerable use of Scottish literary themes and musical devices. Later compositions tended to explore a wider range of inspiration, but towards the end of his life MacCunn began to rediscover his Celtic roots once more.

Brief Biography of Hamish MaCunn:
  • Born at Greenock, Scotland on 22 March 1868, son wealthy ship-owner: his mother Barbara had once studied piano with William Sterndale Bennett.
  • Headed down to London to take up an open scholarship at the Royal College of Music, aged only fifteen.
  • Studied with Hubert Parry and Charles Villiers Stanford.
  • Resigned the course, without a degree.
  • First major performance was at the Crystal Palace in 1885 with the ‘Cior Mhor’: Overture (now lost). 
  • Produced several once-popular cantatas including Lord Ullin's Daughter, Bonny Kilmeny, The Lay of the Last Minstrel and The Cameronian's Dream.
  • Appointed Professor of Harmony and Compositon at the Royal Academy of Music in 1888.
  • Married, in the same year, Alison, the daughter of Scottish painter John Pettie (1839-1893)
  • Commissioned by the Carl Rosa Opera Company in 1889 to write the opera Jeannie Deans which was first performed in 1895.
  • Appointed in 1898 as conductor with the Carl Rosa Opera Company
  • Taught composition at the Guildhall School of Music
  • Died on 2 August 1916, aged only 48.

Five Key Works:
These works are available on CD or download. There are several other works that demand interest and a possible professional recording.
  • The Land of the Mountain and the Flood, Op.3.
  • The Ship o’ the Fiend, Op.5
  • The Dowie Dens o’ Yarrow, ballad, Op.6.
  • The Lay of the Last Minstrel, op.7 for soli, chorus and orchestra.
  • Highland Memories, op.30 for orchestra or piano.

Key Bibliography:
  • Janey Drysdale (probably) The Dunedin Magazine (Volume 2 No.2) March 1914)
  • Henry George Farmer, A History of Music in Scotland (Hinrichsen, London 1947)
  • John Purser, Scotland’s Music: A History of the Traditional and Classical Music of Scotland from Early Times to the Present Day (Mainstream Publishing, Edinburgh 1992)
  • Jennifer Oates, Hamish MacCunn (1868–1916): A Musical Life (Ashgate, Farnham, 2013)
  • Alasdair Jamieson, The Music of Hamish MacCunn (AuthorHouse UK, 2013)

There is only one CD totally dedicated to MacCunn’s music:
Hamish MacCunn, The Land of the Mountain and the Flood, The Dowie Dens of Yarrow, The Ship o’ the Fiend, Jeanie Deans (excerpts) and The Lay of the Last Minstrel BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra/Martyn Brabbins, HYPERION CDA66815, 1995.

And finally, if you have only time to hear one work:
Yes, you’ve guessed it - The Land of the Mountain and the Flood. However, all three overtures are worth hearing. And Highland Memories are absolutely charming too.

Tuesday, 20 March 2018

Benjamin Britten: Choral Dances from Gloriana

It is not necessary to take a view on the success or failure of Benjamin Britten’s opera Gloriana to be able to enjoy and appreciate these five Choral Dances. However, a little background information is useful.
Gloriana was completed by the composer in 1953 as a major part of the musical celebrations for the Coronation. It was ‘Dedicated by gracious permission to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II’. In many ways this was an a-typical opera for Britten. The three-act work was made up of several tableaux, rather than a developed narrative that had been the hallmark of Peter Grimes or Billy Budd.
The basic ‘plot’ of the opera was the relationship between Elizabeth I and the Earl of Essex: it explored the dilemma the queen felt between her sense of public duty and the affection she had for the Earl.  The Earl was condemned to death for treason.
The opera was not particularly well received at the time: in fact, it has been suggested that the young Queen was not amused by watching the ‘affairs’ of her illustrious predecessor. The audience were apparently bored, the critics were disappointed, and the composer became displeased with the work.

The Choral Dances are derived from the second act of Gloriana. In the first scene of this act, Elizabeth I is portrayed making her royal progress to Norwich. The loyal subjects decide to present a masque in her honour. In the opera, the scene was choreographed and was performed by dancers from the Royal Ballet. There were six tableaux which were introduced by the Spirit of the Masque.
The Choral Dances opens with Time, a vivacious madrigal that explores considerable rhythmic and harmonic patterns that are both adventurous and engaging. The second, Concord is written entirely in perfect chords: there is no dissonance. It is a lovely dance that is both ‘simple and subtle’. The two concepts of Time and Concord are united with a well-written, ‘graceful’ double canon, juxtaposing male and female voices. The sprightly Country Girls dance is written for women only. This movement makes extensive use of dotted rhythms and antiphonal use of the voices. This dance is balanced by an energetic scherzo-like movement for male voices, Rustics and Fishermen which is hardly as bucolic as the title suggests. Perhaps the listener will be reminded of the composer’s Spring Symphony? The Final Dance of Homage is a well-poised and gorgeous setting of the subjects final bidding to Gloriana:-
These tokens of our love receiving,
O take them, Princess great and dear,
From Norwich city you are leaving,
That you afar may feel us near.

Donald Mitchell in the Musical Times (February 1955) noted that the Choral Dances ‘gain much from being detached from the distraction of the stage (i.e. the ballet!). In their concert guise it is possible to concentrate exclusively on the freshness of their invention, their beauty of sound and the aptness of their musical imagery.’
To the listener nowadays, when all argument about the opera’s worth seems largely irrelevant these choral dances seem like a perfect fusion of music from the two Elizabethan eras. 
There is a full performance of these Dances on YouTube performed by the Hart House Chorus. 
With thanks to the English Music Festival, where this programme note was first published. I have made a few minor editorial changes.


Saturday, 17 March 2018

Rutland Boughton (1878-1960): Cantata: The Skeleton in Armour Part 2

Modern Opinion
In Michael Hurd’s 1962 study of Rutland Boughton, he was less than complimentary to The Skeleton in Armour. He insists that it was ‘an accomplished exercise in high-flown twaddle.’ He continues by pointing out that ‘it is worth labouring the weakness of the text (presumably he does not like Longfellow) if only to point the enormous distance in taste Boughton eventually travelled.’ The music, Hurd feels, is ‘a mixture of Mendelssohn and Gounod [that] underlines the bathos of the words with a precision that might be mistaken for mockery were it not for the composer’s youth and inexperience.’
In Rutland Boughton and the Glastonbury Festival (1993) Hurd expands his views on The Skeleton in Armour. He suggests that Boughton’s choral music for voice and orchestra must be considered in the context of the large number of choral festivals and competitions that ‘played so vital part in English musical life before the First World War.’  Hurd reflects that these ‘occasions… [were] not primarily the breeding grounds of great art’. He concedes now that this is an ‘interesting work’ and that it ‘has moments of real power and charm.’ He feels that ‘Boughton is at his best when tackling the poem’s grimmer aspects...’ On the other hand Hurd believes that ‘the love element reduces him to teashop sentimentality.’  Finally, he concludes that it ‘is a bold, ambitious work, orchestrated with real aplomb, and an impressive achievement for a 20 year old.’
In his thesis A Survey of New Trends in English Musical Life 1910-1914, (1981) Richard Charles Hall writes that The Skeleton in Armour and The Invincible Armada…were competently-written, run-of-the-mill festival cantatas, simplistic narrative tests provided with vivid settings, in no way out of the ordinary and certainly not representative of the composer's mature style.’

Conclusion.
The Skeleton in Armour is an early piece by Rutland Boughton which predates his Glastonbury operas and major orchestral works. This is quite definitely a Wagnerian work in its use of chromaticism and ‘leitmotivs’, although Hurd (1962) as noted above does raise Gounod and Mendelssohn as exemplars for the musical style.
It is doubtful that present day (2015) concert-goers or listeners will ever hear this work. As a composition it is likely to be near the back of the queue for any contemporary recording project or full-blown concert performance.  However, I think that it would be an ideal candidate for a ‘chamber’ recital with a small ‘scratch’ choir and pianist. Certainly the short notice of this work in The Self-Advertisement of Rutland Boughton (1911) declares that although it is scored with orchestral accompaniment, ‘the work will be effective with an accompaniment of strings and piano only, or even of piano solo.  (My italics). It further notes that ‘a fairly good pianist will be necessary, as the vocal score contains a real pianistic transcription of the orchestral part’.  My study of the score suggests that this work is worthy of being regarded as being more effective than merely an ephemeral ‘Morecambe Festival’ work.

Appendix 1
Other settings of Henry W. Longfellow’s ‘The Skeleton on Armour’ include:
Arthur Foote: The Skeleton in Armour: ballad for chorus and orchestra, op.28 c.1892
Joseph Holbrooke: The Viking: tone poem for orchestra, op.32 (1899). This work was originally called The Skeleton in Armour and was occasionally known as The Corsair.
George Elbridge Whiting: The Tale of the Viking: a Dramatic cantata for 3 solo voices, chorus and orchestra, 1881

Brief Bibliography:
Hurd, Michael, Immortal Hour, The Life and Period of Rutland Boughton, (London, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, 1962)
Hurd, Michael, Rutland Boughton and the Glastonbury Festivals, (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1993)
Files of various contemporary newspapers and journals

With thank to the Rutland Boughton Trust where this essay was first published during December 2017

Wednesday, 14 March 2018

Rutland Boughton (1878-1960): Cantata: The Skeleton in Armour Part 1

The Text
The idea for the poem ‘The Skeleton in Armour’ was ‘suggested’ to Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-82) whilst out riding on the beach at Newport, Rhode Island. The initial stimulus was the finding of a skeleton wearing a brass breastplate and belt at Fall River, Massachusetts, c.1832. There was much debate as to the provenance of the remains, with protagonists proposing, Native American, Phoenician, Carthaginian or Egyptian origin. Other antiquarians were convinced that it was an early colonist or possibly even an elaborate fraud. Another proposal was that the ‘long-buried exile’ was of Scandinavian descent. It was this latter theory that exercised Longfellow’s imagination. The poet was aware of the debate around the Old Wind-Mill or Round Tower at Newport and the hypothesis that it was of Danish origin. Longfellow was inspired by Carl Christian Rafn (1795-1864) who majored on the Viking colonisation of the Americas.  It is hard to know whether the poet believed the theory of the Norse ancestry of the skeleton or whether it was just an apt poetic conceit. 
The remains of the ‘Viking’ were destroyed in a major fire in 1843, so no subsequent tests were possible to prove or deny its origins.  

The poem ‘The Skeleton in Armour’ was first published in the Knickerbocker Magazine (January 1841) and subsequently in Ballads and other Poems (1841).
The burden of the poem is that the ‘ghost’ of the skeleton appears and begins to tell his story to the passing stranger. [cf. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (1798) by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, a poem known to Longfellow].  The spectre declares that he was a Viking who had fallen in love with the daughter of King Hildebrand. However, the king thwarted his suit. The ‘Viking’, aroused to passion, kidnapped the girl and set sail, with her father and his retinue in pursuit. To avoid a sea battle, which he would have lost, the Viking rammed the king’s ship killing all on board. After a journey of some three weeks they made landfall at Narragansett Bay in Rhode Island. The poet imagines that the ‘round tower’ was built for the lady’s bower. Alas, the princess dies and was interred in her tower. The Viking, being distraught arrayed himself in his armour and ‘fell upon his sword.’ 

Genesis of the Cantata
Rutland Boughton was twenty years old when he put the finishing touches to his symphonic poem for chorus and orchestra, The Skeleton in Armour. Other choral works at this time were the cantatas Sir Galahad (1898) and The Invisible Armada (1901).  Orchestral music of this period included the tone poem A Summer Night (1899, rev.1903) and Symphonic Suite: The Chilterns, (1900).  This former work had impressed Granville Bantock when it was first heard at a Halfords Concerts Society event in 1902. It has subsequently been recorded on the Dutton Epoch record label (CDLX7262). The Chilterns, symphonic suite, remains a tantalising desideratum. In 1898 Boughton had completed a Piano Concerto in A flat and a tone poem Lucifer. Both works were withdrawn and subsequently destroyed (Hurd, 1993).
The Skeleton in Armour was originally conceived as a ballad for baritone and orchestra and was completed in February 1898. Hurd (1993) states that it was rescored for SATB later that year: the final page of the vocal score is dated ‘Aylesbury, Nov- Dec. 1898’. The work was further revised in 1903. The score was duly published by Novello & Sons in 1909, priced 2/- (10p). Interestingly, this work is contemporary with Samuel Coleridge-Taylor’s once ubiquitous Hiawatha’s Wedding Feast. 

Premiere and Reviews
The premiere of The Skeleton in Armour was on 16 March 1909 at the Queen’s Hall with the Edward Mason Choir and the New Symphony Orchestra. Mason was born in 1878/9 and had studied at the Royal College of Music. His early career included, teaching at Eton and playing cello in the Grimson Quartet (other members were Frank Bridge (viola) Ernest Tomlinson (violin) and the leader Jessie Grimson (violin).  Mason’s choir, with more than a hundred singers, was formed 1907 and gave its first concert the following year. The concerts continued until 1914.
One of the aims of Mason’s choir was to perform little-known works by English composers. Stephen Lloyd in his study of H. Balfour Gardiner, (Cambridge University Press, 1984, 2005) has noted that over thirty British composers were represented over this six year period. Edward Mason was killed in France (9 May 1915) whilst serving as a second-lieutenant in the Northamptonshire Regiment.

The Rutland Boughton Trust possesses a short typed memorandum quoting a number of reviews. The Morning Post (17 March 1909) noted that Boughton’s Skeleton:
‘…is frankly lyrical in character, and it is invariably grateful for the voices. The composer’s methods are clear, straightforward, and tuneful, and there is no doubt that the excellence of the writing for the voices, the sufficiency of contrast, and the generally attractive character of the work will win for it widespread popularity among choral societies whose technical attainments are legitimate.’ 
There were two calls for the composer to acknowledge the applause. Other works included in this concert were Edgar L. Bainton’s The Blessed Damozel and Arthur Goodhart’s (the memorandum notes the composer was John O’Keefe; in fact, he was the author from whom the libretto was derived) Spanish Armada
The New Music Review (Volume 8, 1908-9) states that Mr. Boughton:
‘…has the dramatic spirit, and as the poem affords ample opportunity for effective musical treatment he has been successful in composing music which is not only melodious, but eminently graphic in its descriptive power. He is evidently a master of choral effects, and his work may be safely recommended to choral societies as well worthy of performance’.

The Musical Times (April 1909) reported that:
‘[The] novelty was the ' Symphonic poem' for chorus and orchestra, The Skeleton in Armour, by Rutland Boughton…. In his highly descriptive setting of Longfellow's grim poem, Mr. Boughton displays considerable power to write effectively for chorus and orchestra. He indulges in many strange devices, but they always have interest and application to the situation. Some of the climaxes are very dramatic, and prove that he can feel strongly in terms of music. The performance was a fair one, but the lack of balance of choral and orchestral tone was sometimes conspicuous.’ 
The same edition of this journal further reports on the published score:-
‘The first aim of Mr. Rutland Boughton's choral writing is to provide interest in every part, the occasions being few when the lower voices form merely an accompaniment. The continuous flow of the part-writing disguises the rigid stanza-form of the narrative, and with its frequent modulations eliminates all monotony. The serious mood of the music, rightly excludes a 'tuneful' style, but effective themes or figures often occur in association with various shades of feeling in the poem. They appear chiefly in the orchestral part, while the skilfully woven choral part-writing continues its course simultaneously. Choralists will find that the apparent chromatic difficulties of their parts are smoothed over by the flow and eminently vocal nature of the writing.’

At the time of the premiere there was some doubt as to whether The Skeleton was an early or a late work. The Musical Standard (20 March 1909) wonders if it was brand new or had been rewritten.  ‘JHGB’ writes that this work has ‘an interesting and masterly character.’ In fact, he insists that the composer has so far not written ‘anything that runs along so well…so pleasingly, the onward trend of the music and its rhythmic buoyancy.’  The audience were ‘never bored’ and ‘every orchestral and choral effect “came off”’.  The choir and orchestra clearly enjoyed performing this work and seemed ‘inspired under Mr. Mason’s direction.’  The music was ‘…unaffectedly or non-artificially British in tone.’

Finally, the composer’s friend George Bernard Shaw once wrote ‘I loathe your music. It isn’t music at all. It is all skeletons in armour, rangle, jangle, bangle, with nothing but old bones inside... For heaven’s sake get a professorship at the RAM. You will get paid for misleading the young and you won’t have any time to compose.’ (Letter, Shaw/Boughton, 2 January, 1912)  I think we can take this as ‘friendly banter’ with just a grain of truth.  
To be continued...
With thank to the Rutland Boughton Trust where this essay was first published during December 2017